(Updated in June 2021 - newly “et al.” does not need to be written in italics)
Let's use the unified reference style when citing the references. There are many styles, and different journals often require different styles. Since we are centred around vegetation ecology, let's keep using the style which is used by Journal of Vegetation Science and Applied Vegetation Science, the leading vegetation ecology journals. The details of this style are in Authors Guidelines e.g. here (section References).
Note that there is a difference between “in-text citations” and citations used in the “References” section.
More details are below: the text copied and modified from the Authors Guidelines published at the website of the Journal of Vegetation Science. References should be prepared in the Harvard style (which is similar to APA 6 style). If you are preparing your manuscript for a certain journal, you usually need to first check the Authors Guidelines of that journal to know whether they do have some specific reference style.
In-text citations (those citations in the main text or on the slides) should follow the author-date method. One work by one author should be cited as:
When a work has two authors, cite both names every time you reference the work in the text. For example:
When a work has three or more authors include only the first author followed by “et al.”. For example:
For works by the same author written in the same year, use a lowercase letter after the year to distinguish them:
Unpublished sources should be indicated as ‘unpubl.’ or ‘pers. comm.’ (the latter with the date and description of the type of knowledge, e.g. ‘local farmer’). Submitted papers may be cited only if they are in some journal's editorial process, and the reference will have to be removed if the item has not been published (at least in early online view) by that journal by the time proofs are corrected for the citing paper.
The References section should provide a complete reference list ordered alphabetically by name at the end of the paper. For references with up to seven authors, all authors are listed. If there are eight or more authors, only the first six are listed followed by “et al.” Always give the full name of the journals. A DOI should be provided for all references where available.
Reference examples follow:
References in languages other than English
Book titles and article titles should be translated into English, with the original language noted in parentheses afterwards. Titles of journals should remain in the original language. If the title of a journal is in a language that does not use the Latin alphabet, the journal title should be transliterated into Latin characters.